On the 50th anniversary of the first successful prosthetic mitral valve replacement, how far has cardiac surgery come, and where are we headed? Tune in to hear Dr. Albert Starr, co-founder of the first artificial mitral valve, medical director of the Providence Heart and Vascular Institute, and director of Academic Affairs & Bioscience Development for Providence Health & Services in Portland, Oregon, recounts his first foray into the field of valvular disease and the extraordinary process of inventing the first artificial mitral valve. What complications did Dr. Starr encounter during the design process, and what breakthrough allowed for success in long-term artificial valve replacement? He also discusses the development of what was perhaps one of the first ventures into outcomes research, with the creation of a system for long-term follow up of patients receiving valve replacement. What does Dr. Starr see as the "next big thing" in cardiac surgery? Dr. Janet Wright hosts.