The Institute of Medicine recently released a list of 100 priority topics for comparative effectiveness research. The first topic on the first page of the report calls for an evaluation of treatment strategies for atrial fibrillation, from surgery or catheter ablation, to pharmacologic therapy. How do we design research to produce an accurate comparison of these treatment options, and what other subjects should stand at the top of our priority list? Dr. Sean Tunis shares his perspective on these questions with host Dr. Jack Lewin. Dr. Tunis, the founding director of the Center for Medical Technology Policy in Baltimore and formerly the director of the Office of Clinical Standards and Quality and chief medical officer for the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, says it may not be the spotless level 1 data that proves ideal for improving our evidence base, but rather a broader range of imperfect information that can be shaped for our clinical benefit.