Out-of -pocket costs account for approximately one fifth of healthcare expenditures. Dr Caleb Alexander,an assistant professor of medicine at the University of Chicago, discusses with host Larry Kaskel, MD, the findings of his recent study that focused on patient-physician communications regarding out-of-pockets costs for outpatient treatment. An unfortunate finding is that doctors rarely communicate with patients about these costs, notwithstanding the fact that patients are quite burdened by these expenses. Tune in to hear Dr. Alexander discuss the key barriers to communications between physicians and patients and the recommendations for overcoming such hurdles. Interestingly, Dr. Alexander's research has found that giving patients free drug samples can often increase a patient's out-of-pockets costs, rather than reduce these expenses.