Frank Vocci received his B.S. in biological sciences in 1971 from Loyola College. His graduate studies were concentrated in pharmacology and neuroscience at the University of Maryland at Baltimore. During that time he worked in the Clinical Neurophysiology Laboratory in the Department of Neurology and also volunteered as a staff counselor at the Tuerk House, a residential program for alcohol and drug detoxification. He received his doctoral degree in pharmacology in 1977. His post graduate training in pharmacology (1977-1978) was received at the Medical College of Virginia with Drs. William Dewey and Louis Harris. From 1978 to 1989, Dr. Vocci was employed with the Food and Drug Administration in the Drug Abuse Staff in the Division of Neuropharmacological Drug Products. He reviewed drug applications for adequacy of characterization of pharmacology and toxicology, evidence of drug efficacy, and characterization of abuse potential and possible necessity of scheduling of drugs under the Controlled Substance Act. In addition to his duties as an FDA reviewer, Dr. Vocci was also a guest researcher in the Clinical Neurosciences Branch of the National Institute on Mental Health, and an ad hoc consultant to the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the World Heath Organization. Since July 1989 he has been affiliated with the Medications Development (now the Division of Pharmacotherapies and Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse) Program at the National Institute on Drug Abuse where he is currently the Director of the Division of Pharmacotherapies and Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse. In his current capacity, he is responsible for instituting research and development activities for medications targeted for the treatment of cannabis, cocaine, methamphetamine, nicotine, and opiate dependence. Dr. Vocci has authored and co-authored over 40 articles in the field of neuropharmacology and substance abuse.