Insomnia is characterized by difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, and experiencing non-restorative or poor-quality sleep; it often leaves individuals feeling unrefreshed upon awakening. Symptoms during the day may include fatigue, irritability, impaired focus, and excessive sleepiness. The condition can significantly deteriorate a person’s quality of life, leading to reduced productivity, impaired cognitive function, mood disturbances, and an increased risk of accidents or injuries due to daytime sleepiness.
This educational program delves into the pathophysiology and diagnosis of insomnia as well as the role of the orexin system in the sleep/wake cycle. The program also evaluates the latest treatments, including the dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs), daridorexant, and lemborexant, and how these DORAs compare to other insomnia treatments with the aim of improving treatment choices, reducing adverse events, and improving patient outcomes.