Although most patients with type 1 diabetes are able to rely on insulin to effectively manage their condition, sometimes insulin is not enough. When should these patients consider pancreas and/or kidney transplant? Dr. Jonathan Fridell, surgical director of the pancreas transplant program at Indiana University Health, talks with host Dr. Aaron Carroll about the benefits of separate or simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation, and says that such transplants can effectively cure patients of their type 1 diabetes. Of course, not every patient with type 1 diabetes is an appropriate candidate for transplant, and sometimes the side effects of immunosuppresive drugs are serious. What are the factors that influence a patient's eligibility for pancreas and kidney transplant? If a patient already has a kidney transplant, are there any disadvantages to getting a pancreas transplant, since these patients are already on immunosuppressive medications?